Master thesis in den usa schreiben conjugation

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Master thesis in den usa schreiben conjugation

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the experiments: Received Aug 1; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Using a three-dimensional RPM, a device designed to simulate microgravity on Earth, we investigated the early effects of RPM exposure on human chondrocytes of six different donors after 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h and compared the results with the corresponding static controls cultured under normal gravity conditions.

After 4 hours of RPM exposure disruptions in the vimentin network were detected. These changes were less dramatic after 16 hours on the RPM, when human chondrocytes appeared to reorganize their cytoskeleton.

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Taking these results together, we suggest that chondrocytes exposed to the RPM seem to change their extracellular matrix production behaviour while they rearrange their cytoskeletal proteins prior to forming three-dimensional aggregates. Introduction Chondrocytes are the only mature cell type found in healthy human cartilage.

With an advanced Golgi apparatus and plenty of rough endoplasmic reticulum, chondrocytes are scattered in cartilage cavities, also called lacunae [2]. The blood supply of chondrocytes is facilitated through the perichondrium and synovial fluid.

Embedded in cartilage, chondrocytes are not capable of cell division in vivo [1]. Loss degradation of cartilage leads to diseases such as osteoarthritis, which frequently occurs in elderly or overweight people and is characterized by progressive destruction of articular cartilage as well as remodeling of the periarticular bone and inflammation of the synovial membrane [1][3][4].

Autologous chondrocyte transplantation ACT is currently used to repair large joint defects with reasonable clinical outcome as well as improve the histology of the repair tissue [5]. However, in addition to the tremendous shortage of tissue and organ transplants, the yield of chondrocytes that can be harvested from small biopsies is very limited [5].

To obtain the required amounts of cells needed for the repair of a defect, chondrocytes must undergo several population doublings in vitro, which unfortunately correlates with a dramatic loss of the chondrogenic phenotype [5]. Moreover, sequelae are the major disadvantage of transplantations.

As a consequence, methods to seed chondrocytes on scaffolds fixed into the defect site by arthroscopic or minimally invasive techniques are currently under investigation and use [6]. The scaffolds produced from either natural materials or synthetic polymers should be able to provide not only physical support for the cells, but also the chemical and biological cues needed to form functional tissues [6][7].

The materials and their degradation products must be non-toxic and non-immunogenic and their degradation rate should match the rate of new tissue formation [7][8].

master thesis in den usa schreiben conjugation

But to date, these hurdles remain difficult to overcome. Therefore, scaffold-free methods of cartilage repair are of great interest. An alternative tissue source could be cartilage engineered in vitro and subsequently implanted.

Microgravity provides the possibility of creating three-dimensional differentiated tissue-like cell assemblies and offers research opportunities that may lead to the generation of replacement organs for transplantation [9]. Therefore, culturing of chondrocytes with the aim of engineering cartilage tissue, either in vivo at the site of damage or in vitro for subsequent implantation, is a cutting edge field to explore [10].

Researchers have found that microgravity offers many advantages in the area of tissue engineering, especially in promoting scaffold-free three-dimensional growth [10][11].

master thesis in den usa schreiben conjugation

Three-dimensional growth is accomplished because the cells are not driven against a solid surface and do not grow across a solid—liquid interface, as they do at the bottom of a Petri dish or a culture flask on Earth.Box @ IU. Box is a no-cost cloud storage and collaboration environment available to students, faculty, and staff.

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